Main steps of a case study research method, some case study...

Table 4 Example of a case study investigating the formal and informal ways students learn about patient safety[ 6 ] Context: Phase 1:

Case Study Research Design

There is a need to reduce the disease burden associated with iatrogenic harm and considering that healthcare education represents perhaps the most sustained patient safety initiative ever undertaken, it is important to develop a better appreciation of the ways in which undergraduate and newly qualified professionals receive and make sense of the education they receive.

Based on our experiences of conducting a range of case studies, we reflect on when to consider using this approach, discuss the key steps involved and illustrate, with examples, some of the practical challenges of attaining an in-depth understanding of a 'case' as an integrated whole. According to Yin, case studies can be used to explain, describe or explore events or phenomena in the everyday contexts in which they occur[ 1 ].

main steps of a case study research method phony catcher in the rye essay

For this purpose you need a plan or research design. A research plan guides the investigator in the process of collecting, analyzing and interpreting observations. Yes If research focusses on what questions, either of two positions arises. The curriculum and organisational documents collected differed between sites, which possibly reflected gatekeeper influences at each site.

This paper is structured around the following main questions: Minority ethnic people experience considerably greater morbidity from asthma than the White majority population.

Case Study Research Design - How to conduct a Case Study

Single intrinsic case study The case: In other words you use the case study method because you want to understand a real-life phenomenon in depth, but such understanding encompasses important contextual conditions — because they were highly pertinent to your phenomenon of study e. A supplementary questionnaire was also provided to researchers. It is an established research design main steps of a case study research method is used extensively in a wide variety of disciplines, particularly in the social sciences.

How to set up your research paper

Doolin has, for example, noted that in the context of undertaking interpretative case studies, researchers can usefully draw on a critical, reflective perspective which seeks to take into account the wider social and political environment that has shaped the case[ 11 ]. Practical, informal, learning opportunities were valued by students.

What is a Case Study?

How cover letter hunter s thompson case studies conducted? Or whether the wish is to obtain a more naturalistic understanding of an issue? The cases: Despite the intention to make the commissioning system more transparent, personal relationships based on common professional interests, past work history, friendships and collegiality, remained as key drivers for sustainable innovation in service development.

Health work forces globally are needing to reorganise and reconfigure in order to meet the challenges posed by the increased numbers of people living with long-term conditions in an efficient and sustainable manner.

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In contrast, the instrumental case study uses a particular case some of which may be better than others to gain a broader appreciation of an issue or phenomenon. Face-to-face and telephone interviews, e-mail discussions, local documents, patient diaries, news items identified from local and national websites, national workshop.

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Framework approach. Case studies have a distinctive place in evaluation research. You could even do a high level case study without leaving the telephone or the internet. The case study inquiry: Discussion What is a case study? Because phenomenon and context are main steps of a case study research method always distinguishable in real life situations, other technical characteristics, including data collection and data analysis strategies, become the second part of our technical definition of case studies: Open in a separate window Table 2 Why college isnt worth it essay of a case study investigating the process of planning and implementing a service in Primary Care Organisations[ 4 ] Context: A second concern is that they provide little basis for scientific generalization.

Academic context Documentary evidence including undergraduate curricula, handbooks and module outlinescomplemented with a range of views from course leads, tutors and students and observations in a range of academic settings. Structured in phases relevant to the three knowledge contexts: Four PCOs.

The case study approach

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. The attitudes of the researchers' towards inclusion: Implementing workforce reconfiguration was strongly influenced by the negotiation and contest among local clinicians and managers about "ownership" of work and income. A research design is a logical plan for getting from here to there, where here may be defined as the initial set of questions to be answered and there is some set of conclusions answers about these questions.

The recruitment of participants for focus group discussions proved difficult, so interviews or paired discussions were used as a substitute. Healthcare systems globally are moving from paper-based record systems to electronic health record systems.

Case study: definition, types and main steps - part 1 (Antonio Ghezzi)

Main limitations: The majority of UK researchers interviewed were generally supportive of the idea of recruiting ethnically diverse participants but expressed major concerns about the practicalities of achieving this; in contrast, the US researchers appeared much more committed to the policy of inclusion.

On the whole, however, students were not exposed to nor engaged with important NHS initiatives such as risk management activities and incident reporting schemes. Phase 1: Resource issues and peer pressure were found to influence safe practice.

This article is a part of the guide:

An intrinsic case study is typically undertaken to learn about a unique phenomenon. The unrealistic, politically driven, timeline implementation over 10 years was found to be a major source of frustration for developers, implementers and healthcare managers and professionals alike.

What are case studies used for? The paper concludes with key pointers to aid those designing and appraising main steps of a case study research method for conducting case study research, and a checklist to help readers assess the quality of case study reports.

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The top-down, government-led standardised approach needed to evolve to admit more variation and greater local choice for hospitals in order to support local service delivery. Introduction The case study approach is particularly useful to employ when there is a need to obtain an in-depth appreciation of an issue, event or phenomenon of interest, in its natural real-life context.

Case Study Research: design and methods.

Table 1 Example of a case study investigating property investment fund business plan reasons for differences in recruitment rates of minority ethnic people in asthma research[ 3 ] Context: Overlooked has been the possibility that case studies can offer important evidence to complement experiments.

Inthe NHS in England embarked on the most ambitious and expensive IT-based transformation in healthcare in history seeking to introduce electronic health records into all hospitals in England by Our aim in writing this piece is to provide insights into when to consider employing this approach and an overview of key methodological considerations in relation to the design, planning, analysis, interpretation and reporting of case studies.

Whilst such a schema can be conceptually helpful, it may be appropriate to draw on more than one approach in any case study, particularly in the context of conducting health services research. Multi-site, mixed method collective case study.

  • You could even do a high level case study without leaving the telephone or the internet.
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Demographic, political and socioeconomic contexts of the two countries: In so doing, we make passing reference to the different epistemological approaches used in case study research by key theoreticians and methodologists in this field of enquiry. Phase 2b: Practice context The cultures to which students are exposed i.

Abstract The case study approach allows in-depth, multi-faceted explorations of complex issues in their real-life settings.

Case study-research-method Eight case studies two for each professional group were carried out in educational provider sites considering different programmes, practice environments and models of teaching and learning. Research has shown however that these minority ethnic populations are likely to be under-represented in research undertaken in the UK; there is comparatively less marginalisation in the US.

This work was conducted in the early stages of a major NHS reorganisation in England and Wales and thus, events are likely to have continued to evolve beyond the study period; we therefore cannot claim to have seen any of the stories through to their conclusion.

A mixed methods, longitudinal, multi-site, socio-technical collective case study. Research has shown however that these minority ethnic populations are likely why college isnt worth it essay be under-represented in research undertaken in the UK; there is comparatively less marginalisation in problem solving articles pdf US.

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The case study approach can offer additional insights into what gaps exist in its delivery or why one implementation strategy might be chosen over another. Table 5 Definitions of a case study Author Stake[ 8 ] "A case study is both the process of learning about the case and the product of our learning" p. The short answer is that case studies, like experiments, are generalizable to theoretical propositions and not to populations or universes.

Case Study Research: design and methods.

Histories are preferred when there is virtually no access or control, and can of course be done about contemporary events: Researchers suggested that the demographic profile of ethnic minorities, their political engagement and the different configuration of the health services in the UK and the US may have contributed to differential rates.

To investigate the formal and informal ways pre-registration students from a range of healthcare professions medicine, nursing, physiotherapy and pharmacy learn about patient safety in order to become safe practitioners.

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  • The case study approach
  • The value of the case study approach is well recognised in the fields of business, law and policy, but somewhat less so in health services research.
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Study design: In-depth interviews were conducted with asthma researchers from the UK and US.