Case study on fruit apple, farmers were also...

The present study was undertaken in an Indian Himalayan state, Himachal Pradesh, with the major aim of studying perceptions of farmers on the effects of climate change on apple farming along the altitudinal gradient. Fifty households in each village were randomly sampled and information was gathered on various parameters, including perceptions of the farmers on the effects of temperature and precipitation on apple farming. A total of respondents inhabited in 6 villages were interviewed during the present investigations along the altitudinal gradient in Kinnaur district.

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The present study was undertaken in an Indian Himalayan state, Himachal Pradesh, with the major aim of studying perceptions of farmers on the effects of climate change on apple farming along the altitudinal gradient.

BB CPK. Random survey was carried out in all three development blocks of Kinnuar district - Kalpa, Pooh and Nichar along the altitudinal gradient e. Manktelow, D.

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In Himachal Pradesh, the area under apple has increased from ha in —51 to 3, ha in —61 and further 99, ha in —10 [11][12]. The perceptions of growers on the quality of apple fruit production varied along the altitudinal gradient. Apple being highly sensitive to adversities of climate [14] — [16]the centre of attention of this study is to access the perceptions of farmers on effects of climate change on the apple farming along the altitudinal gradient.

The data were obtained with the help of structured questionnaire survey.

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If the Arctic Apple opportunity proves fruitful, it could open doors for many other innovations. Results The horticulture has emerged as the main profession of inhabitants in the study area, followed by agriculture and animal husbandry. Analyzed the data: The use of insecticides and fungicides in the IFP program has assured high quality apples from New Zealand for the export market.

  1. The data were obtained with the help of structured questionnaire survey.
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Along the altitudinal gradient the majority of respondents reported that there was increase in atmospheric temperature. Understanding the Costs and Risks of Conversio. Though the production of apple in this state has steadily increased by bringing more areas into apple farming, the productivity has declined [13].

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Scarrow, S. The present study, therefore, aims to understand the causes of reducing apple farming in the state despite high preference of local people to continue apple farming. At present, the traditional apple farming is under stress due to changes in climate.

The present study complies with all relevant regulations.

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Two villages at each altitudinal range e. The main occupation of the people of this state is agriculture, horticulture and allied sector.

The Arctic Apple: An Interesting Case for the Global Fruit Sector - No Waste Network

Codling moth Cydia pomonella mating disruption outcomes in apple orchards. Kinnaur district is composed of 3 administrative blocks such as Nichar, Kalpa and Pooh. Although the number of fungicide applications remains highmany protectant sprays in IFP orchards have been replaced by lower-rate curative sprays. Farmers were also interviewed on the trends in snowfall, extreme events, and changes in seasonality, cropping system and pest attack.

Field Surveys The field surveys were undertaken in Organic growers have to make frequent application of protectant fungicides for black spot.

International Pesticide Benefits Case Study No. 94, November 2013

Farmers were also interviewed on the trends in snowfall, extreme events, and changes in seasonality, cropping system and pest attack. Incommon app 2019 essay questions New Zealand apple industry launched the Integrated Fruit Production IFP program which introduced major changes to insect and disease management. In these states, the apples are grown at altitude ranging from m to m above mean sea level [10].

IFP growers have an advantage because they capstone project ideas web based apply curative chemicals [5]. Figures Abstract Apple farming is an important activity and profession of farmer communities in the Himalayan states of India. A Study of Local Perceptions and Responses. Stewart, T.

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Kinnaur district is composed of 3 administrative blocks such as Nichar, Kalpa and Pooh. A total of respondents inhabited in 6 villages were interviewed during the present investigations along the altitudinal gradient in Kinnaur district.

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The Himalayan mountain ecosystem, at present, is facing the challenges created due to increasing aridity, warmer winter season, variability in precipitation, and unexpected frosts and storms [1][2]which largely affect the entire range of biodiversity, including agriculture and horticulture crops [1][3].

The data were obtained with the help of structured questionnaire survey. Methods Study Area The present study was carried out in the Kinnaur district of Himachal Pradesh, which is located in the northern India.

If successful, it could trigger a new wave of innovation in the fruit sector.

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In Himachal Pradesh, the area under apple has increased from ha in —51 to 3, ha in —61 and further 99, what should be included in an outline for an informative essay check all that apply. brainly in —10 [11][12]. At present, the traditional apple farming is under stress due to changes in climate. Codling moth and five leafroller species are the key insect pests while black spot scab is the key fungal problem in the moist New Zealand climate.

Consumers are sceptical when it comes to GM food, despite the fact that it already constitutes part of their daily diets in the form of GM food ingredients and animal feed.

Climate Change and Apple Farming in Indian Himalayas: A Study of Local Perceptions and Responses

The study rather deals with the agro-biodiversity, which falls in the jurisdiction of Biological Diversity Act Scientific investigation claiming changes in Indian Himalayan climate corroborates perceptions of farmers, as examined during the present study. Worldwide, there are over 7, known cultivars of apples [9]. At mid hills apple scab and at low hills pest attack on apple crops are considered as the indicators of climate change.

The state is second largest producer of apples in the country.

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Performed the experiments: The topographical variations and altitudinal differences provide congenial environment for cultivation of temperate to sub-tropical fruits. Farmers of Indian Himalayan region grow many fruit crops, case study on fruit apple pomes apple and pear and stone fruits peach, plum, how does a literature review differ from an annotated bibliography and cherry in considerable quantity [7] ; however apple has the preference over all other horticultural crops [8].

Total human population of this district is 84, and the population density is estimated as 15 per km2 [17]. CPK BB. Secondary Information An extensive literature survey was carried out on the parameters related to research study.

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An Interesting Case for the Global Fruit Sector While the US media have been solidly focused on politics, the developments around the market trials of the Arctic Apple have gone largely unnoticed.

Trends in Pesticide use in New Zealand.

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China dominates the world in production of apple, followed by the United States, and India ranks seventh with average yield of about 7. Different Departments e.

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Field Surveys The field surveys were undertaken in October 30, Copyright: Although the fruit were initially grown for domestic consumption, growers were quick to realize the export potential. On top of that, its appealing look should reduce waste and tempt consumers to eat more, according to Okanagan Specialty Fruits, the company that developed the apple.

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Random survey was carried out in all three development blocks of Kinnuar district - Kalpa, Pooh and Nichar along the altitudinal gradient e. Before conducting the survey, we informed and discussed with the participants about the nature of the research.

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The perceptions of growers on the quality of apple fruit production varied along the altitudinal gradient. When it is summer in New Zealand, it is winter in Europe. Along the altitudinal gradient the majority of respondents reported that there was increase in atmospheric temperature.

In addition, forecast weather information is used to time protectant fungicide sprays in advance of likely infection periods.