Tsunami case study 2004.
Of all the moment released by earthquakes in the years from throughroughly one-eighth was due to the Indian Ocean earthquake. Measurements from these satellites may prove invaluable for the understanding of the earthquake and tsunami.
These tales and oral folklore from previous generations may have helped the survival of the inhabitants. The aftershock would be considered a major earthquake under ordinary circumstances but is dwarfed by the mainshock. The seismic tsunami case study 2004 of the earthquake were felt across the planet; as far away as the U.
The area toward the sea was wiped clean of nearly every structure, while closer to the river dense construction in a commercial district showed the effects of severe flooding.
Also, in the minutes preceding a tsunami strike, the sea often recedes temporarily from the coast, something which was observed on the eastern side of the rupture zone of the earthquake such as around the coastlines of Aceh province, Phuket island, and Khao Lak area in Thailand, Penang island of Malaysia, and the Andaman and Nicobar islands.
At Ulee Lheue in Banda Aceha survivor[ who? It took a relatively long time to tsunami case study 2004 Struisbaai at the southernmost point of Africa, probably because of the broad continental shelf off South Africa and because the tsunami would have followed the South African coast from east to west. The Indian Ocean earthquake came just three days after a magnitude 8.
Sri Lanka tsunami height survey: However, in comparison to the Indian Ocean earthquake, the death toll from these earthquakes was significantly lower, primarily because of the lower population density along the coasts near affected areas, the much greater distances to more populated coasts, and the superior infrastructure and warning systems in MEDCs More Economically Developed Countries such as Japan.
Island folklore recounted an earthquake and tsunami inand the islanders fled to inland hills after the initial shaking and before the tsunami struck. Overturned cement carrier in Lhoknga The second wave was the largest; it came from the west-southwest within five minutes of the first wave. The tsunami stranded cargo ships and barges and destroyed a cement factory near the Lampuuk coast.
The shift of mass and the massive release of energy slightly altered the Earth's rotation.
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- Eyewitnesses reported 10 to 12 waves, the second and third being the highest.
- A week after the earthquake, its reverberations could still be measured, providing valuable scientific data about the Earth's interior.
The only other recorded earthquakes of magnitude 9. Tsunami run-up measurements along the Sri Lankan coasts are at 2.
Around the Indian Ocean, this rare sight reportedly induced people, especially children, to visit the coast to investigate and collect stranded fish on as much as 2. The rupture proceeded at about 2. Eyewitnesses reported 10 to 12 waves, the second and common app essay prompts for 2019 being the highest.
There were no tsunami warning systems in the Indian Ocean to detect tsunamis or to warn the general population living around the ocean.
List of earthquakes in Indonesia and List of earthquakes in Initial earthquake and aftershocks measuring greater than 4. Other aftershocks of up to magnitude 6. All of them are believed to be greater than magnitude 9, but no accurate measurements were available at the time. Bangladeshwhich lies at the northern end of the Bay of Bengalhad few casualties despite being a low-lying country relatively near the epicenter.
A tsunami that causes damage far away from its source is sometimes called a teletsunami and is much more likely to be produced by vertical motion essay format for college scholarships the seabed than by horizontal motion.
Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami - Wikipedia
As well, the tsunami was large enough to be detected in Vancouverwhich puzzled many scientists, as the tsunamis measured in some parts soal essay report text dan jawabannya South America were larger than those measured in some parts of the Indian Ocean. This was followed by a large withdrawal of the sea before the second and third waves hit.
This quake, together with the Good Friday earthquake Alaskaand the Great Chilean earthquakeaccount for almost half of the total moment.
The Andaman and Nicobar Islands common app essay prompts for 2019 to have shifted south-west by around 1. Maximum height of the waves that hit Indonesia Coasts that have a landmass between them and the tsunami's location of origin are usually safe; however, tsunami waves can sometimes diffract around such landmasses.
Weh, Breueh, and Nasi, lie just north of the capital city. The slip did not happen instantaneously but took place in two phases over several minutes: It also benefited from the fact that the earthquake proceeded more slowly in the northern rupture zone, greatly reducing the energy of the water displacements in that region.
This quickly elevated the height and increased the speed of waves, destroying the nearby Indonesian town of Lhoknga. Although the extreme western edge tsunami case study 2004 the Ring of Fire extends into the Indian Ocean the point where the earthquake struckno warning system exists in that ocean.
The second and third destructive waves arrived later, which exceeded the height of the coconut trees. The construction of seawalls and breakwaters reduced the power of waves at some locations.
The flow depth was just at the level of the second floor, and there were large amounts of debris piled along the streets and in the ground-floor storefronts. This is unusual, since earthquakes of magnitude 8 or more occur only about once per year on average.
The tsunami hit the entire coastline of Sri Lanka around 2 hours after the earthquake. Tectonic plates Main article: The rising magma intrudes into the crust above and exits the Earth's crust through volcanoes in the form of a volcanic arc.
Almost all tsunami case study 2004 the Onge people seemed to have survived the tsunami.
2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami
The Indian Plate is part of the great Indo-Australian Platewhich underlies the Indian Ocean and Bay of Bengaland is moving north-east at an average of 6 sample national junior honor society application essay per year 2. Sincethe only earthquakes recorded with a greater magnitude were the Great Chilean earthquake Magnitude 9.
In some cases, there are no warning signs at all: The seismograms are arranged vertically by distance from the epicenter in degrees. Plate tectonics Epicenter and associated aftershocks The Indian Ocean earthquake was unusually large in geographical soal essay pertanian geological extent.
The first warning sign of a possible tsunami is the earthquake itself. Setting up the communications infrastructure to issue timely warnings is an even bigger problem, particularly in a relatively impoverished part of the world. Thus, the state of Kerala was hit by the tsunami despite being on the western coast of India, and the western coast of Sri Lanka suffered substantial impacts.
A study estimated a magnitude of Mw 9.
The largest the trobrianders of papua new guinea essay measured was at As well as the sideways movement between the plates, the Indian Ocean earthquake resulted in a rise of the sea floor by several metres, displacing an estimated 30 cubic kilometres 7.
Affected or destroyed towns on the region's north and east coast were Pidie Regency, Samalanga, Panteraja, and Lhokseumawe. Tsunamis are more frequent in the Pacific Ocean than in other oceans because of earthquakes in the "Ring of Fire". Of all the moment released by earthquakes in the years from throughroughly one-eighth was due to the Indian Ocean earthquake.
The exact amount is not yet known, but theoretical models suggest the earthquake shortened the length of a day by 2. Play media Tsunami wave field in the Bay of Bengal an hour after the earthquake One of the few coastal areas to evacuate ahead of the tsunami was on the Indonesian island of Simeulueclose to the epicentre.
The raising of the sea floor significantly reduced the capacity of the Indian Ocean, producing a permanent rise in the global sea level by an estimated 0. An oceanic trench several kilometres wide was exposed in the earthquake zone. The magnitude 8.
Geological Survey sees no evidence of a causal relationship between these events.
- There were no tsunami warning systems in the Indian Ocean to detect tsunamis or to warn the general population living around the ocean.
- Because of the distances involved, the tsunami took anywhere from fifteen minutes to seven hours to reach the coastlines.
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It has been theorized that the tsunamis were focused and directed at long ranges by the mid-ocean ridges which run along the margins of the continental plates. The only recorded earthquakes with a larger MW were the Chilean and Alaskan quakes, with 2. However, tsunamis can strike thousands tsunami case study 2004 kilometres away where the earthquake is felt only weakly or not at all.
A major aftershock magnitude 7. This energy is equivalent to over 1, times that of the Hiroshima atomic bombbut less than that of Tsar Bombathe largest nuclear weapon ever detonated; however, the total physical work done MW and thus energy by the quake was 4. Not every earthquake produces large tsunamis: