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These authors show, however, that among internationally-educated doctors and engineers, education-job mismatch is likely to be higher for those trained in Southeast Asia or East Asia compared to those who received the same degree from a European or South Asian institution. However, it is comparable in terms of earnings to human capital acquired by immigrants after coming to Canada. Moreover, generally speaking, studies quantifying the job impact of the circular economy forecast a net increase in jobs, although some existing jobs might be lost.

Organized Labour in the 21st Century, Geneva: Alboim et al show that human capital acquired by immigrants before coming to Canada has less economic value than human capital of the Canadian born with similar qualifications. Klein, Scott Schuh, and Robert K. View the most recent version. Focusing on the labour market characteristics in Flanders, the exploratory data analysis indicated that the group of non-working job seekers is disproportionally made up of low-skilled labour and other vulnerable groups, such as older workers, long-term unemployed, non-natives and people with an occupational disability.

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Additionally, while certain existing occupations might be lost, new occupations might be created job substitution and job creationor similar changes might occur at the job activity level where some specific tasks might be replaced by others job transformation.

Moreover, generally speaking, studies quantifying the job impact of the circular economy forecast a net increase in jobs, although some existing jobs might be lost. Burton Jr, J. Ministry of Labour. Similar developments occur due to technology changes and robotization.

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Deshpande, S. Until recently, the literature has focused on the effects of international factors on net employment at aggregate levels or in selected import-competing industries.

Cooper Oxford University Press.

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Next to quantitative estimates, a number of qualitative estimates have been published on job creation through the transition to a circular economy. Roychowdhury, S. Their findings also suggest that when internationally-educated engineers have a paid job, it is less likely to be in an occupation that is commensurate with their educational qualifications.

Sweetman finds that in Canada's labour markets, immigrants from countries with the highest average scores on international cognitive skills tests enjoy higher employment earnings than all other immigrants, even after accounting for gender and education level.

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Basil Blackwell. Research into Labour Market Behaviour, Paris: Archived This page has been archived on the Web. Mata who examined the relationship between the location of highest postsecondary degree completion and the labour market outcomes of immigrants literature review on labor market Canada reaches a similar conclusion, that is, that immigrants who completed their highest level of postsecondary education in Canada have higher employment and labour market participation rates and lower unemployment rates than internationally-educated immigrants.

It is also important to not only look at the number of jobs that can be created but also the quality of these jobs. Unni, J. Madhyam Books.

Chapter 2: Literature review Reproduction and distribution subject to the approval of the copyright owners. Deshpande, S.

Finally, Sweetman and McBride show that the private returns to high-paying fields of study such as sciences and technology for Canada-educated immigrants are closer to those for the Canadian-born than is the case for foreign-educated immigrants. Vincents, J. Archived Content Information identified as archived is provided for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. Palgrave Macmillan.

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Finally, Sweetman and McBride provide evidence indicating that immigrants with a Canadian degree experience better labour market outcomes in terms of earnings, hours worked per week and weeks worked per year than internationally-educated immigrants.

Likewise, Boyd and Nc state personal statement requirements show that recent immigrants whose training in literature review on labor market or medicine was completed in a foreign institution are less likely than the Canadian born with a similar education obtained in Canada to be employed in an occupation matching their educational credentials.

Labour Market Structure: A Brief Literature Survey - Munich Personal RePEc Archive

Ferrer, Green and RiddellAlboim, Finnie and MengSweetman and Sweetman and McBride have also documented variations in the economic success of foreign-educated immigrants. Examining gross job and worker turnover associated with changes in international factors raises questions about the accuracy of prior estimates of adjustment costs associated with international factors because gross flows are an order of magnitude larger than net employment flows.

Heath Lexington Books. Villa, P.

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International Institute for Labour Studies. Munck, R. Snower Moreover, the transition has the potential to reduce the educational and geographical mismatches currently present in the Flemish labour market. Serial Publications. They explain this finding in part by the fact that foreign-educated immigrants may lack strong literacy skills in either English or French.

She attributes this finding, at least in part, to the low international transferability of skills acquired through education acquired in some source countries of immigrants. Jose, A.

After having examined education-job mismatch among very-recent immigrants with a university degree, Galarneau and Morissette concluded that immigrants who came from South Asia and Southeast Asia are more likely to occupy professional positions requiring at most a high school literature review on labor market, whereas those least likely to occupy these types of positions came from North America, Northern Europe, Western Europe or Oceania.

Robertson Solow, R. Deshpande Jhabala, R. Reproduction and distribution subject to the approval of the copyright owners. McMillan Press Ltd.

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According to her findings, immigrants are less likely than the Canadian born to work in a regulated occupation for which they were trained. More research into working conditions in circular economy jobs is hence needed.

Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, Flanagan eds Combining this analysis with the results from the literature review, we expect that a transition to a more circular economy will positively affect employment for these vulnerable groups and reduce overall unemployment.

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Piore Economics of Wages and Labour, London: It is not subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards and has not been altered or updated since it was archived. Conversely, foreign-educated immigrants have, on average, an earnings premium over the Canadian-born and immigrants with a Canadian degree when it comes to low-paying fields of study such as the arts and humanities.

Gilmore and Le Petit have similar findings. Naidu, K.

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Boyd and Thomas find that among Canada's permanent residents who studied engineering, those who studied abroad are more likely to be out of the labour force and less likely to find paid employment, as compared to their Canadian-born counterparts or immigrants with a Canadian degree. Macmillan Press Ltd. Siebert International Labour Office Phelps, O.

Plante reports that regardless of the duration of residence and the location of foreign postsecondary study, internationally-educated immigrants have lower education-job match rates than their Canada-educated counterparts and the Canadian-born.

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Vanamala, M. For instance, Zietsma investigates the extent to which immigrants whose postsecondary field of study is expected to lead to employment in regulated occupations were in fact working in that field.

Sharma eds: The research that has been conducted so far indicates that some jobs in the waste sector are 'dirty jobs'. In the long run, aggregate net employment largely is unaffected by international factors, whereas these factors have important allocative effects in the short and long run, both between and within detailed industries.

Institute for Human Development. Breman, J.

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The methodology used was a combination of literature review and exploratory data analysis, the latter mainly focused on the Belgian region of Flanders. In one recent analytical study, for instance, Plante finds that immigrants who completed their highest level of postsecondary education in Canada have higher earnings than almost all internationally-educated immigrants, even after controlling for the influence of cohort of immigration, gender, province of residence and the number of worked hours.