Literature review on malaria prevalence. Malaria Literature | CIDRAP

Although malaria prevention and control approaches are available, e. Case studies were excluded if the central focus was not a malaria diagnosis in Meghalaya. Meghalaya malaria control programme data suggests that the distribution of more thanlong-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets LLINsdistributed for the first time incould be responsible for the observed decline. Grant information This research was supported by the Institut Pasteur de Madagascar. Methods A hybrid approach was used to describe the status of malaria in Meghalaya.

This resulted in relatively more cases of malaria recorded in the second seasons of malaria outbreak compared to pre-IRS when more malaria cases were reported during the first seasonal malaria outbreak.

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Ann Nigerian Med ; Studies were triaged for inclusion, and those which mentioned Meghalaya as a neighbouring state or case reports not relevant to malaria in Meghalaya literature review on malaria prevalence excluded. PCR, on the other hand, has a huge role to play in precisely defining transfusion malaria but is seldom available.

MacLeod, A.

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Gomez-elipe et al. This is because of the favourable local weather conditions for both vectors and parasites reproduction and survival, which increases the risk of infected mosquito bite. We identified two studies evaluating the PE of larviciding programs by comparing clusters receiving the intervention and clusters that were not treated, either in a CSS design applied in under-fives 38 or in a stepped-wedge design encompassing all age groups IPTp Most studies aiming to evaluate the effectiveness of IPTp were conducted at small scale, usually in one or two literature review on malaria prevalence.

Malaria Literature

Showing relationship of long-term 10 years malaria mean monthly cases with rainfall and relative humidity. Abstract Background Meghalaya, one of eight states in the northeastern region of India, has been reported to carry a high malaria burden. All the patients were tested for MPs pretransfusion and were negative. Other interventions The PE of the use of insecticides was seldom demonstrated, despite the possibility of a socioeconomic bias that would be expected to increase their PE.

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Figure 5: Imbahale, W. In Zimbabwe, both rainfall and relative humidity were found to be positive predictors of malaria infection, while maximum temperature and minimum temperature were both negative predictors of malaria infection [ 16 ]. However, available information on the influence of climatic factors on malaria are scarce, conflicting, and highly contextualized and therefore one cannot reference such information to malaria control policy in Northern Uganda, thus the need for this study.

Supplementary material.

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The annual population in Gulu district as used in calculations was estimates from the census data showing population ofin the district and annual population growth rate of 3. From the reviewed literature, the overall occurrence of blood transfusion malaria in transfusion recipients is low despite the fact that the potential risk of transmission is quite high as evidenced by the large proportion of blood donors harboring MPs.

Connor, and M. Results from randomized controlled trials are more balanced: Donor deferral based on history of exposure to malaria is not feasible in endemic countries as the exposure is universal.

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IFA is highly sensitive and specific although it is time-consuming and subjective since it does not necessarily indicate a recent infection. Protopopoff, W.

However, indoor residual spraying is a very promising method to achieve a sustained malaria control in this population. Satake, M.

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This could hinder the progress towards more cost-effective control policies, as the strategy should be locally adapted depending on data about the effectiveness of CIMP. Rainfall and relative humidity showed significant positive correlations with malaria, whereas mean maximum temperature showed significant negative correlation with malaria unlike the mean minimum temperature which showed no correlation with malaria.

Conversely the analyses of large samples were not systematically stratified by subpopulations.

In Delhi, mean rainfall and relative humidity, both lagged at 1 month, were significant predictors of malaria infections but maximum temperature did not significantly affect malaria infections [ 17 ]. Bed nets Overall, the measures of the PE of bed nets demonstrated a fair effectiveness of this CIMP, even often above the protective efficacy measured in controlled trials.

The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Freimanis et al. Commentaries and letters to editors were excluded from the study.

Geographical stratification can thus detect an inhomogeneity in the PE that can reflect, for example, local parasitological resistance to SP. Abstract Asymptomatic malaria parasitemia has been documented in donor blood in West Africa.


Temperature and rainfall are two climatic factors previously used to forecast malaria outbreaks in East Africa [ 1213 ]. Our take-home message is not so much that MCI are effective on average, but that their effectiveness might be locally lower -or higher- than what is expected by efficacy studies.

Tribal communities in India are particularly prone to malaria because of their geographical marginalization, poor access to health care, low socio-economic status, and social factors including cultural and religious values, and beliefs [ 14 ]. Thus, the information generated is representative of the actual malaria situation on the ground.

Most PE evaluations used an obstetrical or neonatal e.

Malaria Literature | CIDRAP

Another method of malaria infection control is use of indoor residual spraying IRS which is a very effective method, especially, in high-transmission areas [ 4 ]. Although malaria prevention and control approaches are available, e. Besides this, various meta-analyses of CIMP already exist, either reviewing efficacy studies only,or mixed both efficacy and effectiveness studies Sorted data was entered literature review on malaria prevalence SPSS There was no significant hemolysis to the red cells also.

Mean maximum temperature showed negative correlation with malaria just like in Bangladesh and Iran where increase in mean maximum temperature was associated with decline in Anopheles mosquito and malaria infection [ 3435 ].

Ochola, and R.

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Epidemiology of Malaria and Transfusion Malaria In3. Otero, M. Frequencies and proportion were calculated for malaria cases and climatic variables. Malaria and Indoor Residual Sparing The cover letter for postal clerk job outpatient department OPD malaria cases reported during the year study period in Gulu stood at 2, cases with a year long-term mean monthly malaria cases of 19, Azairwe et al.

Githeko, L. While several methods are being utilized to reduce the risk of transmission of transfusion malaria, their cost-effectiveness limits wide-range application. Paaijmans, M.

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Paaijmans, A. Nevertheless, some studies were conducted at a larger scale and even stratified by regions, e. Therefore, malaria control and eradication interventions need to be strengthened to reduce the rate of infection in the potential blood donors.

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Figure 8. This could be attributed to declining maternal immunity to malaria infection especially after age of 2 years as evidenced in other previous studies [ 21 — 23 ].

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Six other recipients had MPs posttransfusion who were not identical with the donors' as such could not be termed transfusion-transmitted. PE of the domestic use of insecticides Our systematic search identified 20 evaluations, from 16 studies Supplementary File 6of the PE of the use of other insecticides than IRS, including coils This could reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections and avoid unnecessary donor exclusions and wastage of blood products.

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  • Otero, M.

However, the dramatic change in malaria cases demonstrated that there is unquestionable need to sustain IRS as evidenced in Southern Africa in order to achieve malaria eradication [ 26 ]. Figure 4: Nevertheless, the number of published studies about the effectiveness of CIMPs seems to be stagnating since Malaria in Gulu disproportionately affects children under 5 years and shows seasonality with a generally stable trend influenced by rainfall and relative humidity.

Blood transfusion malaria: A literature review Faruk JA - Ann Nigerian Med

Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflicts of interest. Acknowledgements We thank the Institut Pasteur de Madagascar, and in particular the Malaria Research Unit, for their helpfulness and their sympathy. Singhasivanon, T. Talwar, D.