Case study of tuberculous meningitis,

Acknowledgements Not applicable. Meningeal calcification may be obvious on skull X-ray while chest X-ray may show pneumonic process, adenopathy, fibronodular changes, cavitations, and pleural effusion if there is associated tuberculous involvement of the lungs. Lancet Neurol Furthermore, the cerebral ventricle and associated vessels were moderately expanded. The study was submitted to and approved by the Ethics and Research Committee.

In the prodrome phase symptoms are mainly constitutional like vague ill health, low-grade fever, apathy, lack of appetite, headache, vomiting, and pain in the abdomen.

A Case Report on Complicated Tuberculous Meningitis

Pediatr Infect Dis J. According to the literature, other factors associated to a greater positivity in the bacteriological diagnosis include a greater volume of CSF and a longer microscope analysis time.

  • Included in this group are the injectable amino glycosides streptomycin formerly a first-line agentkanamycin, and amikacin; the injectable polypeptide capreomycin; the oral agents ethionamide, cycloserine, and P AS; and the fluoroquinolone antibiotics.
  • After this, the patient evolves into a coma state with high fever.
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  • Case study: TB | Big Picture
  • Four major drugs are considered the first-line agents for the treatment of TB:

Geyik, Harvard referencing guide for thesis. Balik et al. A retrospective study. Lancet ; The present study is only a preliminary analysis of TBM in Chinese patients, and in following studies, cases that involved other meningitis types caused by bacteria will be used as the control group, in order to clarify the diagnosis of TBM.

Chandramuki et al. Bagga, V.


Leptomeningeal involvement results from either hematogenous spread or rupture of subpial or subependymal foci known as Case study of tuberculous meningitis foci into the subarachnoid space [ 5 ]. The unusual clinical and laboratory features such as the presence of high grade fever, normal tuberculin test, the presence of normal CSF ADA level and normal CSF microscopy culture and sensitivity may lead to misdiagnosis or late diagnosis of TBM with the attendant high rate of morbidity and mortality.

Particularly, factors such as diabetes, malignancy and alcoholism are known to serve a role in TBM development; therefore, they may also be considered to contribute to a poor prognosis However, the reasons for not excluding blood sugar and ion factor in the present study included: Three of his family members were diagnosed with latent tuberculosis which were treated with 9 months of Thesis other word therapy.

Availability of data and materials All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article.


Comparison of clinical features and prognostic factors in HIV-negative adults with cryptococcal meningitis and tuberculous meningitis: Diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Pehlivanoglu, G.

Case study: TB

All subsequent sputum cultures remain negative for MTB on follow-up. During treatment, a particular drug that is able to go through the blood-brain barrier and reach higher blood concentration in the CSF should be selected for TBM. Treatment TBM is similar to that of other forms of tuberculosis. Abstract We present a case of tuberculous TB meningitis in nonimmunocompromised immigrant worker who initially presented with headache and later with generalized tonic clonic seizures and disseminated tuberculosis.

She had no complaints of numbness, paresthesia, bowel or bladder incontinence or retention, diplopia, facial weakness, or dysphagia.

Factors associated to the positive cerebrospinal fuid culture in the tuberculous meningitis

Pakistan is ranked among 22 high TB burden countries. Cerebellar signs dysdiadochokinesia, scanning speech, intention tremors, past pointing, nystagmus were not there.

Yasar, F. He did not have any recent travel or TB exposure. He worked in a restaurant.

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In conclusion, the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of TBM give a thesis statement variable. Tuberculous meningitis with pulmonary miliary tuberculosis: Tuberculomas are organized clusters of inflammatory cells meant to limit the spread of Mycobacterium bacilli.

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We also conducted a comparison between the results of the CSF exam in patients that have been infected with HIV-1 and those not infected with the virus in order to evaluate whether the state of immunodepression could alter the fitness centre thesis of the CSF, which would make the laboratorial diagnosis of the disease even more difficult. Competing Interests The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.

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The CSF in patients with TBM in the acute phase commonly exhibit an increased number of neutrophils, which are converted into hybrid cells derived from stem cells that have an important role in organogenesis, tissue regeneration and cancer formation in the subacute phase, and an increased number of lymphocytes is detected in the tissue repair stage 15 In addition, the intracranial pressure is always low in the presence of sub-arachnoid adhesions or obstruction MRI has been found to be superior to CT of the head for visualization of tuberculomas.

A case of tuberculous meningitis with atypical multiple lesions. Dillon, and A. Although comparative clinical trials of treatment for extra pulmonary TB are limited, the available evidence indicates that most forms of disease can be treated with the 6-month case study of tuberculous meningitis recommended for patients with pulmonary disease. The lack of rapid and sensitive tests delays the early diagnosis.

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This report serves to highlight the pivotal role of timely diagnosis of unusually presenting complicated TBM in reducing morbidity. If unrecognized, TBM is uniformly fatal.

A Case of Tuberculous Meningitis with Tuberculoma in Nonimmunocompromised Immigrant

The levels of TNF-alpha were persistently high in the CSF in TB meningitis, which could represent the primary biological factor responsible for maintaining the inflammatory process. All patients with a negative culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis were submitted to a PCR course work or coursework for the bacterial genome. Both her parents had TB and completed treatment for it.

Imaging data of a representative tuberculous meningitis patient. Kalra, and O. These agents are recommended on the basis of their bactericidal activity i. Firstly, the most significant limitation is the TB-spot test, which was not performed in all the patients.