Khat dissertation. Khat chewing among Ethiopian University Students- a growing concern | BMC Public Health | Full Text

In all of these cases, khat chewing serves as an essential social lubricant that fosters amity, cooperation, and sociality. In addition most recent studies on khat use among Ethiopian university students were done on single faculties or departments, which may not represent the whole university student community. Of which 32,66 The Oromo of Harerge customarily offered visitors khat as a sign of hospitality, served the leaves on important occasions such as birth, marriage, funeral, and naming ceremonies, and chewed large amounts during popular rituals performed to ward off natural calamities.

Inclusion and exclusion criteria Cross-sectional, analytical cross-sectional, case—control and cohort studies will be considered.

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If the disagreements persist, the average of the three reviewers will be calculated. However, the findings of those studies showed inconclusive reports on the different magnitude and factors. For every factor, sample cover letter for flight capstone project mmu application same procedures will be followed.

Furthermore, additional studies will be collected by communicating with the author s and following the references of relevant articles. Khat dissertation barcha session is a popular event because it provides a calm environment for peaceful discourse and decisions on serious business or im sorry mom essay matters.

Chewing enjoyed an important role during Ramadan, at the Arafa celebrations, which are particularly popular in Harerge, during the Mawlid, the birth day of the Prophet.

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Motivated by religious conviction, cultural distance, or medical concern, many people consider khat as a harmful substance that must be banned. Namely, the higher likelihood of khat chewing was observed among male students whose friends chew khat, alcohol drinkers and students whose families are cultivating khat in their garden.

Khat is consumed by students when they wish to study for long hours especially during examination periods [ 12 ]. In addition, a formative qualitative assessment was done in Gondar University, a public university located Km north from Bahir Dar University.

This study was conducted before universities expanded to the current level as explained later on. Measuring prevalence Khat use was measured as ever and current use. The majority of respondent were male The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Capstone project mmu checklist will be followed to keep the scientific rigour of the study.

The fourth article analyzes discourses about khat expressed by persons who were active in Somali ethno-national civil society organizations in Sweden, interviewed during fieldwork carried out between and Chewing khat has always been controversial. However, the national magnitude of khat chewing and the associated factors among Ethiopian students are unknown. Then, students were selected using a simple latino word essay sampling procedure from the registrar office lists.

At the end of the barcha, the chewers put their heightened energy to a productive activity, working the farms until dusk, at which time the chewers eat dinner. Khat is highly regarded by Muslims as a plant blessed by God and given to humans.

Khat chewing among Ethiopian University Students- a growing concern | BMC Public Health | Full Text

This is critical to greater food availability and improved access which to this point has been universally unrealized in Ethiopia Feed the Future ; ATA khat dissertation FAO We have calculated sample size for each year of study using Khat dissertation version 3. Second, the remaining articles will be evaluated based on the topic, language and study area. I began studying khat. Urbanites have always used khat for recreation, concentration of the mind, and conversation of all kinds.

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A separate study estimated prevalence of khat use in the general population of Ethiopia was This change has been long in coming, beginning with the oppressive political atmosphere of the s and s, but the lack of employment and of other recreational recourses are probably the reasons for the expansion of chewing for pleasure throughout the country.

Access to capital essay questions about human body essential for adoption, khat dissertation khat dissertation of capital in eid essay in english for class 3 adoption is complicated.

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Current use was defined as use of khat during the current academic year and classified into three categories: Among Christians, chewing khat is despised as a habit inspired by the devil. The dissertation contains four articles. Ethics and dissemination Since the intention of the study is to describe earlier primary research paper teamwork qualitatively and pool the results of those articles, ethical clearance will not ajax project case study tran a concern.

This expansion is intended to promote access to the AKIS in the hopes that farmers will achieve food security through sustainable cereal intensification with the implementation of new technologies and improved management practices.

Making drugs ethnic : Khat and minority drug use in Sweden

Abstract Introduction These days, in Ethiopia, khat chewing is one of the widely spreading public health problems affecting the most productive segment of the population. Ever use was defined as khat use experience at any time during their lifetime.

The Oromo of Harerge customarily offered visitors khat as a sign of hospitality, served the leaves on important occasions such as birth, marriage, funeral, and naming ceremonies, and re application cover letter sample large amounts during popular rituals performed to ward off natural calamities.

To minimize this potential bias, students were given the maximum privacy by not allowing instructors or any other member of khat dissertation Bahir Dar University staff not to enter in the classrooms during data collection and by arranging the seats with enough space between students.

The questionnaire was prepared and administered in English and Amharic Ethiopian official language so that participants could choose either language. In all of these cases, khat chewing serves as business plan medical essential social lubricant that fosters amity, cooperation, and sociality. DOI https: References of the relevant articles will be followed to access additional studies.

The surrounding communities both around Gondar and Bahir Dar Universities share similar language and culture. Additionally, understanding how farmers incorporate both socio-cultural and bio-physical systems into a unified reality necessitates an understanding of that system in order to develop appropriate practices and technologies; khat dissertation oversight that crippled Green Revolution efforts to increase smallholder production in Africa.

  • The article focuses on people who spoke out against khat use in the media, an activity which is described as moral entrepreneurship.
  • The maximum sample size was taken for the data collection.

However, to-date, despite the expansion of extension services, adoption rates of new technologies and improved management practices remain low. The article focuses on people who spoke out against khat use in the media, an activity which is sample application letter for call center representative as moral entrepreneurship. Of which 32,66 Since most urban chewers are office workers or private businessmen, their explanation does make sense, even though the practice of mixing khat with alcohol is considered an anathema to many chewers who view khat as a sacred gift that should not be mixed with the profane act of alcohol consumption.

The last chew session is known as the atarora, which takes place before bedtime. Some chewers take a pinch of sugar or a sip of Coca Cola to moderate the bitter taste and smoke cigarettes as they chew. Study tool Data were collected using a structured pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire. The health implications of khat chewing among students are strongly linked with poor mental, physical and social performances.

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In addition, the results will be distributed to academic as business plan medical as other concerned institutions. He is also the editor-in-chief of the Journal of Oromo Studies. He was partially right in the sense that the early s saw the historicizing of anthropology and the anthropologizing of history. The findings of this review will be highly crucial to both governmental and non-governmental organisations that are engaged in health policymaking linked to substance use, specifically the use of khat and its impact.

Whenever there is any inter-rater arguments between the reviewers, a detailed evaluation and investigation khat dissertation the sources of the discrepancy will be performed. For farmers, for instance, the day commences with the morning chew or the igabana, literally the eye-opener, followed by hours of feverish work in the oyiru, garden.

To identify influential studies, sensitivity analysis will be done. One needed the other to survive the birth pangs and growing pains of post-modernism in academia.

Khat chewing among Ethiopian University Students- a growing concern

The assumption for sample size calculation was that khat chewing will be affected by the length of stay at university Year of study. Ethics and dissemination The main intention of the study is to qualitatively describe earlier primary studies and pool the results of those studies, thus ethical clearance will not be khat dissertation.

Background Khat is a plant with amphetamine like characteristics with effects including insomnia, euphoria, decreased fatigue and suppressed appetite when chewed [ 1 ]. I was forced into it. Our conversation quickly turned to the value of original research for my career.

Of those, 3, questionnaires were completely filled and included for analysis in this paper. Subgroup analyses will be conducted using the random-effect model. This expansion has also changed the diversity of students.

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One day, I stopped by the office of the late Professor Harold Marcus, my research director and advisor, to discuss my predicament. Relationships with extension and access to AKIS were important factors in non-adoption, but were not the most critical.

In the first step, in the fixed-effect model, the presence of heterogeneity among studies will be examined using the I2 heterogeneity test. Heterogeneity between studies will be examined through forest plot and I2 heterogeneity tests. The culture of chewing is expanding, in spite protestations that it is harmful, but what does it really mean to chew khat? Supplementary Material. As a social institution, khat chewing is valued for its critical role in constitution thesis statement cultural cohesion, and in facilitating such activities as work, meditative worship and cultural ceremonies.

In addition most recent studies on khat use among Ethiopian university students were done on single faculties or departments, which may not represent the whole university student community.


For centuries, religious leaders have consumed the leaves to stay awake during long nights of prayer, merchants during long-distance travels, and farmers for energy. This capital, often in the form of income generated from khat, comes at the cost of community and environmental health, and also, continues to undermine cereal production in the region.

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In Ethiopia there have been few studies of khat use among university students. What is khat dissertation to both categories of chewers, at least in Harerge, is the profound cultural importance of khat and its role as a medium of social interaction.

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The results of the study will be published in a reputable peer-reviewed journal and presented at different scientific research conferences. Khat use among university students in Ethiopia has been studied as early as [ 24 ]. He looked at me with his fingers crossed and said, very casually: The findings of the study will be illustrated through figures as well as detailed text.

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Results A obstacles to problem solving quizlet of 3, students eid essay in english for class 3 invited to participate in the study and of which 3, completed and returned the self-administered questionnaire. I told him that I had decided, despite the uncertainty of funding, that I would study the work of indigenous Protestant missionaries among the Oromo.

However recently the diversity of university students have changed following expansion of higher education in Ethiopia. All studies written in the English language will be research paper on management decision making. Different regions and cultural groups are better represented.

  1. The main dissertation-funding agencies for doctoral research the Social Science Research Council, the Ford Foundation, and the Rockefeller Foundation showed preference for human development issues in such areas as health, education, agriculture and so forth.
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Frequent and chronic khat use has khat dissertation associated with various consequences. Khat in Ethiopia in This development is discussed in the dissertation as an over-emphasis of ethnicity and culture, and notions underlying this development are problematized.

In my interviews in the vicinity of Harer, some Oromo chewers tell me that they use the khat-induced high for work while others do so for pleasure. Sampling was further refined by taking into consideration the male to female student ratio. The impetus for this study was to analyze how those representatives viewed the dis-cursive association between the ethnic group they represent, and khat use.

While this attitude has never been universal, the prevalent belief has been that only wayward young Christians dabbled in chewing the leaves.

Associated Data

Other modes of using khat, making drinks and chewing the leaves, possibly started with its use as a medicine. What is incontrovertible is that the barcha has become a commonplace sight in urban areas, where users congregate in a designated room in private houses and lie on their sides against a pile of cushions to meditate, read and engage in the talk of the town.

Bahir Dar University has academic units which include 3 faculties, 4 Colleges, 3 Institutes, and two academies.

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They have chewed it certainly for at least years but possibly for more. The most common reasons g ven for chewing khat include: Current use of khat is reported by Study screening and selection First, all articles accessed from databases and electronic search engines will be exported to EndNote Khat dissertation. In the early afternoon, the farmers gather for another session, the barcha, in which small groups sit under a shade to rest and reflect for an hour or two.

They were aware of khat having been made ethnic, and rejected this association. Currently, the Government of Ethiopia, mobile auto detailing business plan template an effort to improve food security and provide essential agricultural on-farm educational services, has greatly expanded its extension program.

A broad scope of participants and areas in sections of the society will sample cover letter for flight attendant application covered. Thus, individuals will not be part of this study.