Dissertation lautonomie originelle du droit administratif. Volume 8, numéro 2, automne – Les ateliers de l'éthique – Érudit

An important way they do this is to promote or protect those institutions that enable them to realise their interests. This process reduces the state to the role of security guard, labour relations manager or exporter of raw materials. Norms and values are viewed as key aspects of what makes a community, where institutions develop to govern the behaviour of community members.

He then presents a strong case for community involvement as the most important actors in natural resource management: On such occasions they engage in collective action on the basis of common interests.

Implicit in these arguments is the separation of the state from the society: Social Sciences Detailed field: A major attraction of this perspective goes back to the counter arguments from the common property theorists against the tragedy of the commons thesis. Livelihood strategies do not conform to the geographical boundaries that maps might denote.

Positing communities as small and specifically located in a particular space implies defined boundaries. In Southern Africa, in general male migration into the labour centres has been a common practice as early as the last working out before doing homework of the 19th century Van Onselen, Is the community isolated from the regional, national and international processes that influence other developments within the state?

This section has discussed the various analytical threads that inform dissertation lautonomie originelle du droit administratif understanding of policy processes and outcomes in CBNRM.

It is assumed that inhabitants of these communities depend on natural resources for the large part of their survival. An important way they do this is to promote or protect those institutions that enable them to realise their interests.

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Below, we will discuss some of the criticisms against this concept of community to show that CBNRM is a product of certain political imperatives other than the imagined qualities of communities. A central argument in this study is that, an examination of actors involved in policy making and implementation, than the policy itself, points to the form policy outcomes will take.

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Allusion to private property, therefore, is used to convey a picture of a community that is conscious of and has an interest in seeing to it that only legitimate members of the community benefit from the use of the resources. Local groups to these advocates were said to be were rule bound communities malleable into robust resource management institutions Chambers and McBeth, ; Li, Either the resources are partitioned to individual owners or the state assumes control over those resources held in common.

In most cases, both actors depend on one another for the promotion of their interests.

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This study seeks to show that community-based NRM is shrouded in the rhetoric of a homogenous community as a major variable in these programmes. This is due to typical characterisations of the African state that include: A major assumption of such programmes is that of a self-contained community.

Mandondo studied the use of non-timber forest products, among villages with clearly defined boundaries and resource sites in Eastern Zimbabwe. Members of this community differ in their priorities when they encounter new problems. This study shows that a wider political and institutional context underpins these changes.

Such a view erroneously conflates the colonial and postcolonial states. They have greater interest in the health and integrity of the environment than any outside parties for their very existence and way of life are at stake. Using cases from Zimbabwe and Botswana, this study brings together these analytical threads to argue that CBNRM outcomes, in the long term are path dependent. Do external interests share the same vision of the role of the community?

Groups sharing the same ethnicity and language occasionally pursue different and conflicting survival strategies that have no reference to these two primordial forms of organisation.

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A key element of dissertation lautonomie originelle du droit administratif tragedy of the commons thesis is that natural resources, particularly key species, were at the risk of depletion from human activity. The critique of the community concept leads to the development of a conceptual framework that emphasises the need to analyse the different actors involved in Dissertation lautonomie originelle du droit administratif reveal path dependence in choices and outcomes of contests.

A consequence of this process has been increased dissertation lautonomie originelle du droit administratif among the households; a reflection of different investment strategies and different access to incomes Cheater, ; Amin, ; Maast, ; Scoones and Wilson, In this paper, we wish to argue that these agents when making choices do not conform to a Weberian rationality but are influenced by norms and values developed from their experiences; in other words, there is path dependency in their practices.

A community can exist on the basis of a particular interest but this is fickle. Other critics of the concept of community argue that in some cases community, as some specific territory actually makes resource management difficult, for example water sheds, lakes and wildlife Agrawal and Gibson, ; Campbell, State intrusion has weakened community based resource management arrangements that are a hedge against natural resource degradation.

We now turn to the Zimbabwean and Botswana case.

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Consequently, these positions determine the form and practice of CBNRM, through negotiation, contests, collusions and intrigue. We find the concept of path dependence useful in understanding why the players make certain choices under circumstances Khan, ; North, CBNRM falls into the wider curriculum vitae mario abdo benitez debate on the role of the state in, particularly African development.

However, several questions emerge from such a perspective: For their part, societal actors resent sic public regulation but are sometimes willing to accept it as part of the price of access to the substantial resources, which the state controls. To illustrate this path-dependency the paper discusses community based natural resources management CBNRM programmes from Zimbabwe and Botswana.

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A bleak tale of resource degradation characterised most of the countries in the south: Therefore, to talk of and most important of all, dissertation lautonomie originelle du droit administratif in terms of a community with a shared norms and slouching towards bethlehem didion essay masks the ongoing contests that characterise societies.

Such lock in is a consequence of; learning effects; that make performance more efficient, coordination effects; pursuing similar strategies to everyone else and adaptive expectations; North, In all models it is a clear majority.

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Changes in natural resources management strategies in Southern Africa are not, contrary to common perceptions, revolutionary but are incremental in practice Hulme and Murphree, These mechanisms account for the preference of certain institutions over others within particular political arrangements. The lowest percentage is The above leads to further weakening of the African state; rolling back the state further reduces its capacity.

Hindess cautions us on taking interests as a mobilising force for a group.

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Such a simple view of interests raises conceptual problems not least because groups that engage in collective action may yet have conflicting interests at least of some important matters. Each group has its constituency, interests and agendas Katerere, And even if one argued that the balance of use is tilted in favour of the resource-owning village, the point is that letter thesis submission community, as a geographical unit letter thesis submission not reflect practice and is therefore not useful in analysing resource management practices.

What one observes is a very diverse mixture of modern and traditional beliefs among the members of the same community.

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Focussing on the community was attractive for its apparent democratising tendencies. The fact that many of their activities contribute to the impoverishment of these resources is a powerful indictment of the situation they have often been pushed into. The analysis draws upon the example of the European Parliament and suggests some key principles such as "degressive proportionality" according to which small states would get relatively more and large states relatively fewer seats.

As the study claims, the models discussed therein reveal that "these assumptions are not substantiated.

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Furthermore, Agrawal and Gibson say that in some instances states, rather than the community are better managers of natural resources. This sad picture is attributed to state dominance in resource management. Ghai,p. Any realistic model needs to alleviate this imbalance. Based on working out before doing homework as analogous to cover letter vc location, one would assume that village boundaries would form the basis for resource appropriation.

Defined geographical and institutional boundaries, a membership that coalesces on common interests and norms, linguistic and ethnic homogeneity is assumed to characterise this community.

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It has the potential of dividing households further, over their preferences regarding natural resources. Li says that since the term community can be mis used to achieve a certain objective, it should not be evaluated for its exactitude but for its political effects.

  • Allusion to private property, therefore, is used to convey a picture of a community that is conscious of and has an interest in seeing to it that only legitimate members of the community benefit from the use of the resources.
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  • For those resources that have low economic value, local groups are unwilling to bear the transaction costs of management Campbell et al, ; Scoones and Wilson,

Local and supra-local actors, seek to promote their interests in intervention programmes. Prevailing donor development discourses place the local community at the nexus of democracy and good governance.

This point has also been observed in a different but related study of social movements. We will first examine the shortcomings of the community concept in explaining outcomes of planned intervention in general and specifically, to community based natural resources management.

This difference among the households is critical regarding the use of natural resources. As Bratton points out: To obviate this state ineptitude, experts especially from the North, made strong cases for the involvement of local groups in the management of natural resources.

From this point of view, community is viewed as a discourse that reflects the power balance in the group. Community as geographical unit Proponents of CBNRM argue that a spatial location is a major distinguishing factor of communities Bromley and Cernia,